New Publication: U&GT and Augmented Reality Smart Glasses

My new paper, published in Psychology & Marketing, applies Uses & Gratification Theory to better understand how people react to Augmented Reality technologies. Results show that ARSG can satisfy all basic human needs.In particular, AR can activate gratifications that are conceptually linked to cognitive needs, tension-related needs, affective needs, social-integrative needs, and personal integrative needs. The testes gratifications are life efficiency, enjoyment, desired enhancement of reality, wearable comfort, socializing, and self-expression.

Desired Enhancement of Reality

Desired enhancement of reality is a novel construct that covers the idea that a user can alter his or her perception in a way that it becomes one’s “dream world”:

Consequently, on a more abstract level, ARSGs can also give users the opportunity to enhance their perceptions of their world. In other words, consumers not just “immerse” themselves into a dream world, they now have the opportunity to share their perceptions of the real-world in a watch that it matches their ideal world. Therefore, we term this content gratification as “desired enhancement of reality,” which allows users to realize dreams, such as buying objects (e.g., cars, art) they cannot afford or owning fictitious pets or phantasy-like creatures that appear realistic from subjective perceptions of their reality. (Rauschnabel, 2018)

Content and Process Gratifications

The study also distinguished between content gratifications and process gratification. In other words, the study argues that users might benefit not only from “using them” – i. .e the AR content (and therefore termed “content gratification”) but also from wearing the devices (“process gratification”). Thus, this study contributes to the research stream of U&GT (Ruggerio, 2000; Rubin, 2002)

Update: the follow-up publication has just been published at Journal of Business Research. This study (Rauschnabel et al., 2018) also shows the relevance of privacy risks,


Rauschnabel, P. A., He, J., & Ro, Y. K. (2018). Antecedents to the adoption of augmented reality smart glasses: A closer look at privacy risksJournal of Business Research92, 374-384.

Rauschnabel, P. A. (2018). Virtually enhancing the real world with holograms: An exploration of expected gratifications of using augmented reality smart glassesPsychology & Marketing35(8), 557-572.

Rubin, A. M. (2002). The uses-and-gratifications perspective of media effects. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Publishers.Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass communication & society, 3(1), 3-37.

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